The official journal of
EUROPAD - European Opiate Addiction Treatment Association
WFTOD - World Federation for the Treatment of Opioid Dependence
Editor: Icro Maremmani, MD - Pisa, Italy, EU
Associate Editors:
Thomas Clausen, MD - Oslo, Norway
Pier Paolo Pani, MD - Cagliari, Italy, EU
Marta Torrens, MD - Barcelona, Spain, EU
Statistical Editor:
Mario Miccoli, PhD - Pisa, Italy, EU

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Heroin Addiction and Related Clinical Problems: 2023, 25, N5 (pages: 29 - 35)

The role of economic, social and occupational factors in relapse among patients with methadone maintenance treatment (MMT): A descriptive-analytical study

Motazedian S., Kheradmand A., Badiei R., Babazadehdezfoly A., and Keshavarzi A.

Summary: Background: Nowadays, relapse is one of the problems that has become a concern for opioid use disorder (OUD) therapists. So far, many factors related to the relapse in addicts have been known. However, since OUD's living and environmental conditions are different, the main cause has not been determined in most cases. This study assessed the effective economic, social, and occupational factors on the relapse of MMT patients. Methods: This cross-sectional survey was conducted on opiate addicts (n=525) referred to MMT centres in Shiraz City, Iran, in 2020. These people had at least one history of repeated use of opiates. They had been referred to OUD treatment centres to quit opiates again and receive the necessary care. The sampling was random. The data collection tool in this study was a researcher-made questionnaire about economic, social and occupational factors. The questionnaire scoring method was based on Likert scales, which included Strongly Disagree, Disagree, Neutral, Agree and Strongly Agree. Result: The results showed that in all the age groups investigated, the cheapness of opioids was established as the main economic factor in the relapse of patients with MMT. Also, socialising with addicted friends, shared use of opioids, relationships with addicted colleagues, and not being accepted by friends and society were recognised as the primary social factors in OUD relapse. Also, unemployment played a role as the most common occupational factor in the relapse of OUD. Conclusion: According to the present study, it can be said that the cheapness of opioids, hanging out with addicted friends, and the commonness of using opioids in the community and unemployment, respectively, play a role in the relapse of OUD as socioeconomic factors.


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