The official journal of
EUROPAD - European Opiate Addiction Treatment Association
WFTOD - World Federation for the Treatment of Opioid Dependence
Editor: Icro Maremmani, MD - Pisa, Italy, EU
Associate Editors:
Thomas Clausen, MD - Oslo, Norway
Pier Paolo Pani, MD - Cagliari, Italy, EU
Marta Torrens, MD - Barcelona, Spain, EU
Statistical Editor:
Mario Miccoli, PhD - Pisa, Italy, EU

HARCP Archives

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Heroin Addiction and Related Clinical Problems: 2023, 25, N3 (pages: 7 - 15)

Positive Psychology as a Protective Factor for Illicit Opioids in Individuals Receiving Methadone Treatment.

Krembuszewski B., Anderson-White E., Henderson C., White S., and Langley H.

Summary: Background: Continued illicit opioid use (IOU) following interventions for opioid use disorder (OUD) is a significant barrier to recovery. The cognitive-behavioral relapse prevention (CB-RP) model may be an important framework for understanding the relation between positive psychology and IOU for methadone as a medication for opioid use disorder (MOUD) and promote abstinence and treatment adherence. Aim. It was hypothesized individuals who are at risk for IOU but demonstrate effective coping and self-efficacy will have lower rates of IOU and increased treatment attendance. Materials and Methods: Individuals receiving methadone MOUD (N = 298; 57% male) were recruited from the metropolitan area of a United States city through convenience sampling. IOU risk factors (amount used, length of use, criminal involvement, and intravenous use) were accessed through participant records, and measures included the Coping Strategies Index and the General Self-Efficacy Scale. Results: Researchers ran moderator analyses to determine the effect of coping and self-efficacy on the relation between risk factors and IOU or treatment attendance. Time in treatment is related to drug screenings positive (DS+) for illicit opioids, other substances, and increased treatment attendance. Coping is a predictor of DS+ for illicit opioids. Black/African American individuals had lower treatment attendance. Conclusions: Individuals with effective coping strategies use illicit opioids less often and interventions that increase coping should be explored in this population. Racial differences in treatment attendance point to the need for additional resources for Black/African American individuals. Increasing treatment retention is important to improve outcomes and adherence.


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