The official journal of
EUROPAD - European Opiate Addiction Treatment Association
WFTOD - World Federation for the Treatment of Opioid Dependence
Editor: Icro Maremmani, MD - Pisa, Italy, EU
Associate Editors:
Thomas Clausen, MD - Oslo, Norway
Pier Paolo Pani, MD - Cagliari, Italy, EU
Marta Torrens, MD - Barcelona, Spain, EU
Statistical Editor:
Mario Miccoli, PhD - Pisa, Italy, EU

HARCP Archives

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Heroin Addiction and Related Clinical Problems: 2023, 25, N3 (pages: 17 - 25)

Effect of Raha Syrup on the Severity of Dependence, Depression, Anxiety, Stress, Craving and Serum Serotonin Levels in Patients with Opioid Use Disorder Receiving the Opium Tincture Maintenance Treatment

Shokravian M., Miladi-Gorji H., Shajiee H., Ghorbani R., and Mazinani M.

Summary: Background: This study examined the effectiveness of Raha syrup in reducing the severity of dependence, depression, anxiety, stress, craving and serum serotonin levels in patients with opioid use disorder receiving the opium tincture (OT) maintenance treatment. Methods: This was a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest study. Two groups of opioid-dependent patients (62 out of 70 men) were treated with OT and/or OT/Raha. Both groups completed the questionnaires of Leeds Dependence, Depression Anxiety Stress Scales, and assessed by Opioid Craving -Visual Analog Scale before and after treatment. Also, venous blood was taken after 8 hours fasting before and after treatment to measure serum levels of serotonin. Results: We found significant differences in the pretest–posttest difference scores of the severity of dependence, depression, stress, anxiety and serum levels of serotonin between two groups of patients receiving OT and OT/Raha. Also, a significant difference was found in the dependence severity score in both OT and OT/Raha groups and the craving scale only in group OT/Raha before and after treatment. Conclusions: We conclude that administration of Raha herbal syrup along with maintenance treatment with OT may be beneficial in the management of opioid withdrawal. The maintenance treatment with OT also attenuated the severity of opioid dependence.


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