The official journal of
EUROPAD - European Opiate Addiction Treatment Association
WFTOD - World Federation for the Treatment of Opioid Dependence
Editor: Icro Maremmani, MD - Pisa, Italy, EU
Associate Editors:
Thomas Clausen, MD - Oslo, Norway
Pier Paolo Pani, MD - Cagliari, Italy, EU
Marta Torrens, MD - Barcelona, Spain, EU
Statistical Editor:
Mario Miccoli, PhD - Pisa, Italy, EU

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Heroin Addiction and Related Clinical Problems: 2021, 23, N2 (pages: 69 - 77)

Further Evidence of a Psychopathology Specific to Substance Use Disorder. Relationships between Psychopathological Dimensions and Alcohol Craving in Recreational Drinkers

Miccoli M., Poli A., Pagni L., Conversano C., Pani P.P., Maremmani A.G.I., and Maremmani I.

Summary: Background. At present, the diagnosis of substance addiction relies on the identification of specific behavioural symptoms. We have proposed an integrated framework of the psychopathology of addiction that comprises possible related psychological symptoms. The first syndrome was the "Worthlessness/Being Trapped" (W/BT) dimension. The second one was related to "Somatic Symptoms" (SS). The third factor identified the "Sensitivity/Psychoticism" (S/P) syndrome. The fourth factor was related to "Panic Anxiety" (PA) symptomatology. The fifth syndrome described a "Violence/Suicide" (V/S) dimension. Aims. In this cross-sectional, naturalistic study, involving a single assessment of recreational drinkers, we estimated the magnitude of the correlations between behavioural covariates of alcohol craving and our five psychopathological syndromes. Results. The Alcohol Craving Scale and the total score of the Symptomatological Check List (90 items) were positively correlated (n=78; r=0.48; p <0.01). W/BT was positively correlated with the habit of drinking because others are already drinking and personally continuing to drink till late in the day, despite having already drunk profusely. No correlation was found with SS. S/P was positively correlated with the tendency to drink only because others are already drinking. PA was positively correlated with never missing an opportunity to drink the last glass being offered. V/S was positively correlated with almost always feeling like having a drink. Canonical variate set-one (SCL-90 syndromes) was saturated negatively by W/BT and positively by V/S and ACS Set-two (items in ACS) was saturated negatively by never refusing the last glass being offered and positively by always being thirsty enough to drink at any time and often feeling like having a drink. These sets were significantly correlated (p <0.001). Conclusions. The current study, because it demonstrated the correlation between psychopathology and craving in recreational alcohol drinkers, has provided further support for the view that our psychopathological structure is specific to SUD.


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