The official journal of
EUROPAD - European Opiate Addiction Treatment Association
WFTOD - World Federation for the Treatment of Opioid Dependence
Editor: Icro Maremmani, MD - Pisa, Italy, EU
Associate Editors:
Thomas Clausen, MD - Oslo, Norway
Pier Paolo Pani, MD - Cagliari, Italy, EU
Marta Torrens, MD - Barcelona, Spain, EU
Statistical Editor:
Mario Miccoli, PhD - Pisa, Italy, EU

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Heroin Addiction and Related Clinical Problems: 2024, 26, 28

Liver function and lead levels increase by oral and inhaled opium use in Iranian addiction treatment centres

Mohamad Ghaiedi, Zahra Barmoudeh, zahra daneshyar, Janmohamad Malekzadeh, and Sajad Hassanzadeh

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Summary: Introduction. Opium use is a significant cause of lead poisoning in Iran. Previous studies have shown that in developing countries, including Iran, where drug use is high, vendors add lead to increase profits. The present study aims to investigate the effects of lead exposure on liver and kidney function and blood parameters. Methods. This was a cross-sectional descriptive-analytical study. One hundred and twenty-three people were studied, of which 61 (49.6%) were in the oral opium group, 31 people (25.2%) were in the inhaled opium group, and 31 people (25.2%) were in the control group. PASW Statistics 18 software for Windows was used for data analysis. Results: The results showed increased AST and lead levels in oral and inhaled opium groups. In contrast, the amount of Cr and FRAP significantly increased only in the inhalation group. In addition, it was observed that the amount of NO and lead has a significant positive relationship with the duration of drug use. Conclusion: The results showed that opium-addicted subjects are at risk for kidney and liver injuries, but further investigations are needed to prove this finding.

Keywords: Opium; lead poisoning; liver function; addiction treatment


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